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Title: How human schematization and systematic errors take effect on sketch map formalizations
Author: Wang, Jia
Advisor: Schwering, Angela
Kuhn, Werner
Painho, Marco
Keywords: Sketch map
Spatial cognition
Sketch formalization
Cognitive errors
Defense Date: 9-Mar-2009
Series/Report no.: Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies;TGEO0019
Abstract: Sketch map is an important way to represent spatial information used in many geospatial reasoning tasks (Forbus, K., Usher, J., & Chapman, V. 2004). Compared with verbal or textual language, sketch map is a more interactive mode that more directly supports human spatial thinking and thus is a more natural way to reflect how people perceive properties of spatial objects and their spatial relations. One challenging application of sketch maps is called Spatial-Query-by-Sketch proposed by Egenhofer. Being a design of query language for geographic information systems (GISs), it allows a user to formulate a spatial query by drawing the desired spatial configuration with a pen on a touch-sensitive computer screen and get it translated into a symbolic representation to be processed against a geographic database (Egenhofer, M. 1997). During the period of sketch map drawing, errors due to human spatial cognition in mind may occur. A ready example is as follows: distance judgments for route are judged longer when the route has many turns or landmarks or intersections (Tversky, B. 2002). Direction get straightened up in memory. When Parisians were asked to sketch maps of their city, the Seine was drawn as a curve, but straighter than it actually is (Milgram, S. and Jodelet, D. 1976). Similarly, buildings and streets with different shapes are often simply depicted as schematic figures like blobs and lines. These errors are neither random nor due solely to ignorance; rather they appear to be a consequence of ordinary perceptual and cognitive processes (Tversky, 2003). Therefore, when processing sketch map analysis and representing it in a formal way, like Egenhofer's analysis approach for Spatial-Query-by-Sketch, the resulting formalization must necessarily be wrong if it does not account for the fact that some spatial information is distorted or omitted by humans. Therefore, when sketch map analysis is processed and represented in a formal way same as Egenhofer’s analytical approach to Spatial-Query-by-Sketch, the resulting formalization is simply erroneous since it never takes into account the fact that some spatial information is distorted or neglected in human perceptions. Though Spatial-Query-by-Sketch overcomes the limitations of conventional spatial query language by taking into consideration those alternative interaction methods between users and data, it is still not always true that accuracy of its query results is reliable.(...)
Description: Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies
Appears in Collections:NIMS - MSc Dissertations Geospatial Technologies (Erasmus-Mundus)

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