Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/21996
Título: Essays on labor, product, and credit market imperfections
Autor: Regula, Sónia Manuela de Castro Félix
Orientador: Portugal, Pedro
Palavras-chave: Labor market frictions
Wage setting
Policy
High dimensional
Fixed effects
Gelbach decomposition
Price rigidity
Coordination failure
Duration model
High dimensional fixed effects
Peer effects
Credit market frictions
Bank lending
Financial crisis
Disequilibrium model
SMEs
Data de Defesa: Jun-2017
Resumo: Market frictions or market imperfections are diverse, broadly present in most markets, and affect most transactions in the economy. These market failures may prevent buyers and sellers from trading, even if they agree on a price. This means that the central assumption of perfectly competitive markets that markets clear fails to hold, and some buyers and sellers remain unmatched. Since the 1970s, a growing literature has emerged addressing the importance of market frictions in most markets of the economy, namely in the labor, product, and credit markets. Information asymmetries, transaction costs, heterogeneous preferences, and coordination failure are examples of sources of market imperfections. In labor markets, these frictions imply that firms possess some market power over their employees and that a one cent wage cut does not lead all workers to leave the firm. In product markets, a key ingredient for the sluggish price adjustment is coordination failure among firms. Firms respond incompletely to an aggregate shock because other firms have not yet responded. In turn, asymmetric information and costly contract enforcement provide the foundations of credit market frictions, and are used to explain credit rationing as a market equilibrium. In Chapter 1 we use matched employer-employee data and firm balance sheet data to investigate the importance of firm productivity and firm labor market power in explaining firm heterogeneity in wage formation. We use a linear regression model with one interacted high dimensional fixed effect to estimate 5-digit sector-specifc elasticity of output with respect to input factors directly from the production function. This allows us to derive firm specific price-cost mark-up and elasticity of labor supply. The results show that firms possess a considerable degree of product and labor market power. Furthermore, we find evidence that a firm's monopsony power negatively affects the earnings of its workers, and firm's total factor productivity is closely associated with higher earnings, ceteris paribus. We also find that firms use monopsony power for wage differentiation between male and female workers. Chapter 2 describes price setting behavior using a very rich dataset of producer prices collected for Portuguese frms. The Industrial Producer Prices Index dataset is comprised of monthly transaction prices collected for products defuned at a detailed level. We proceed with the analysis in two steps. First, we estimate a hazard function model for the probability of a price change with high dimensional fixed effects to extensively account for product and firm-specific time-invariant heterogeneity, splitting price changes between price decreases and price increases. Second, we estimate a peer-effects model to document how market competition affects firms' price setting rules. The results suggest that the likelihood of price adjustment depends on both idiosyncratic and sectoral conditions. Furthermore, when we fully account for heterogeneity, duration dependence is estimated to be positive in the case of both a price increase and price decrease. The results of the peer-effects model suggest that firms timidly respond to their competitors' price setting behavior. Chapter 3 examines the importance of credit demand and credit supply-related factors in explaining the evolution of credit granted to Portuguese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The results suggest that the interest rate is a strong driver of SMEs' demand for bank loans, as well as their internal financing capacity. On the other hand, credit supply mostly depends on firms' ability to generate cash-flows and reimburse their debt, and on the amount of collateral. The model was estimated for the period between 2010 and 2012. The results suggest that a considerable fraction of Portuguese SMEs were affected by credit rationing in this period.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/21996
Designação: A PhD Dissertation, presented as part of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the NOVA - School of Business and Economics
Aparece nas colecções:NSBE: Nova SBE - PhD Thesis

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