Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/16090
Título: Valorization of olive pomace through combination of biocatalysis with supercritical fluid technology
Autor: Nogueira, João Humberto Gonçalves Francisco
Orientador: Simões, Pedro
Paiva, Alexandre
Palavras-chave: Biodiesel
Transesterification
Supercritical carbon dioxide
Olive pomace
Olive pomace oil
Phenol
Data de Defesa: Set-2015
Resumo: A supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) based oil extraction method was implemented on olive pomace (alperujo), and an oil yield of 25,5 +/- 0,8% (goil/gdry residue) was obtained. By Soxhlet extraction with hexane, an oil extraction yield of 28,9 +/- 0,8 % was obtained, which corresponds to an efficiency of 88,4 +/- 4,8 % for the supercritical method. The scCO2 extraction process was optimized for operating conditions of 50 MPa and 348,15 K, for which an oil loading of 32,60 g oil/kg CO2 was calculated. As a proof of concept, olive pomace was used as feedstock for biodiesel production, in a process combining the use of lipase as a catalyst with the use of scCO2 as a solvent, and integrating the steps of oil extraction, oil to biodiesel transesterification and subsequent separation of the latter. In the conducted experiments, FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) purities of 90% were obtained, with the following operating parameters: an oil:methanol molar ratio of 1:24; a residence time of 7,33 and 11,6 mins; a pressure of 40 MPa; a temperature of 313,15 K; and Lipozyme (Mucor miehei; Sigma-Aldritch) as an enzyme. However, oscillations of FAME purity were registered throughout the experiments, which could possibly be due to methanol accumulation in the enzymatic reactor. Finally, the phenolic content of olive pomace, and the effect of the drying process – oven or freeze-drying – and the extraction methods – hydro-alcoholic method and supercritical method – on the phenolic content were analysed. It was verified that the oven-drying process on the olive pomace preserved 90,1 +/- 3,6 % of the total phenolic content. About 62,3 +/- 5,53% of the oven-dried pomace phenolic content was extracted using scCO2 at 60 MPa and 323,15 K. Seven individual phenols – hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein, quercetin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid – were identified and quantified by HPLC.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/16090
Designação: Mestrado em Biotecnologia
Aparece nas colecções:FCT: DCV - Dissertações de Mestrado

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