Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/48570
Autor: Graça, Cátia Alexandra Leça
Orientador: Teixeira, António
Velosa, Adriana
Palavras-chave: Persistent pesticides
Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)
UVA radiation
Data de Defesa: 2017
Resumo: In this Thesis either advanced oxidation or reductive processes are investigated for the degradation of two pesticides considered persistent in the environment: amicarbazone (AMZ) and chlorpyrifos (CP). In chapter I, different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) driven by sulfate (SO4•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were applied to the degradation of AMZ. In the first study, several persulfate (PS) activated reactions were explored for AMZ degradation, namely activation with UVA radiation, Fe(II) and H2O2, as well as the combination of UVA radiation with Fe(II), Fe(III) and Fe(III)-complexes. Here, the influence of different reaction variables, such as solution pH, reactants and pesticide initial concentrations, addition of a second oxidant (H2O2) and the addition of different iron catalysts were also investigated. Control experiments regarding the photolysis of iron species in the absence of PS captured our interest and, with the aim of exploring more deeply this process on AMZ degradation, a second investigation was carried out. In this second study, a Doehlert experimental design was applied to investigate the simultaneous effects of two variables on AMZ degradation: pH and Fe(III):carboxylate ratio, where the carboxylate could be oxalate, citrate or tartrate. A response surface model for the observed degradation rate (kobs) as a function of pH and Fe(III):carboxylate ratio was obtained. The processes explored in both aforementioned studies revealed to be effective for AMZ removal, although nothing is known yet about their effectiveness regarding toxicity removal. Given that, a third study was carried out, where the toxicity of AMZ solutions, before and after submission to the processes studied was evaluated towards five microorganisms: Vibrio fischeri (acute toxicity), Tetrahymena thermophile, Chlorella vulgaris (chronic toxicity), Escherichia coli and Bacilus subtilis (antimicrobial activity). The last investigation detailed in chapter I is related with the application of zero-valent-metals on PS activation, which is a subject that links this chapter with the following one. For that, zero-valent-iron (ZVI) was investigated as a PS activator and the influence of variables that help to assess the environmental applicability of this process. In general, organochlorine pesticides reveal a higher resistance to oxidation than reduction, the latter process preferred when the aim is to degrade that important class of contaminants. Therefore, in chapter II the reductive degradation of CP by means of zero-valent-metals and bimetallic particles was investigated. ZVI has been extensively applied for that purpose. However, besides iron, other zero-valent metals can be potential reactive materials for reductive degradation and hence, in this study, the effectiveness of Zn0 and Cu0 was also explored in comparison to that widely reported for ZVI. Furthermore, two different ways of enhancing metals reactivity were here explored: i) by coating ZVI or Zn0 with a more noble metal (Cu), in order to analyze the copper catalytic effect on the bimetallic system; ii) by different surface pretreatments.
Descrição: Tese arquivada ao abrigo da portaria nº 227/2017 de 25 de julho.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/48570
Designação: Doutor em Ciências (Engenharia Química)
Aparece nas colecções:FCT: DQ - Teses de Doutoramento

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