Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/14376
Título: Toxicity of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their mixtures to aquatic organisms under ecologically-relevant scenarios
Autor: Martins, Marta Susana Silvestre Gouveia
Orientador: Costa, Maria Helena
Costa, Pedro Manuel Broa
Palavras-chave: Genotoxicity
Oxidative stress
PAH bioavailability
Sediment contamination
Interaction effects
Aquatic toxicology
Data de Defesa: Dez-2014
Resumo: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous priority pollutants that tend to be trapped in aquatic sediments due to their high hydrophobicity. Nonetheless, the differential toxicological effects and mechanisms between the various classes of PAHs and their mixtures, as they invariably occur in the environment, are scarcely known, especially under ecologically-relevant scenarios. This thesis aimed at establishing a bridge between the study of mechanistic pathways and environmental monitoring of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAHs, by introducing ecological-relevance in the research with model PAHs. A first bioassay conducted in situ with the mussel Mytilus edulis demonstrated that, dredging operations in harbours increase PAH bioavailability, eliciting genotoxicity, and showed that established environmental guidelines underestimate risk. Subsequent ex situ bioassays were performed with the carcinogenic benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) and non-carcinogenic phenantrene (Phe), selected following preceding results, and revealed that low-moderate concentrations of these PAHs in spiked sediments induce genotoxic effects to the clam Ruditapes decussatus, therefore contradicting the general notion that bivalves are less sensitive to PAHs than vertebrates due to inefficient bioactivation. Also, it was demonstrated that passive samplers permit inferring on PAH bioavailability but not on bioaccumulation or toxic effects. On the other hand, sea basses (Dicentrarchus labrax), yielded a complex pattern of effects and responses, relatively to genotoxicity, oxidative stress and production of specific metabolites, especially when exposed to mixtures of the PAHs which led to additive, if not synergistic, effects. It was shown that Phe may elicit significant genotoxicity especially in presence of B[b]F, even though the low, albeit realistic, exposure concentrations diluted dose- and time-independent relationships. The present work demonstrated that environmental quality guidelines underestimate the effects of PAHs in realistic scenarios and showed that the significant genotoxic and histopathological effects caused by mixed PAHs may not be reflected by oxidative stress- or CYP-related biomarkers. Besides important findings on the metabolism of PAH mixtures, the work calls for the need to re-evaluate the criteria for assessing risk and for the disclosure of more efficient indicators of toxicological hazard.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/14376
Designação: Dissertação
Aparece nas colecções:FCT: DCEA - Teses de Doutoramento

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