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Title: Paleontologia e evolução a problemática da espécie em Paleozoologia
Author: Rocha, R. B.
Keywords: Typological species
Biological species
Population concept
Speciation mechanisms
Synthetic model (or phyletic gradualism)
Ponctuated equilibria
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Departamento de Ciências da Terra
Abstract: The concept of species in Paleontology is of paramount importance since the correct taxonomic determinations are essential to establish the age of the beds where fossils are collected. Particularly since 1940, the concept of species from a biological context, corresponding to the variability of a set of interpopulation compatibility, led us to a new approach, in which a typological conception has been replaced by a populationist one. If the notion of species is not necessarily identical for all living organisms, the greater the difficulties of interpretation in the private world of cephalopod fossils. The latter, lend themselves well to population systematics, and where this concept of species rests primarily on the morphological similarities. Thus, the introduction of general ideas analyse "typological species", "biological species", the problem of the definition of a "population" in Paleontology, and also the importance of the biometric analysis of fossil associations. The classic examples of polymorphism amd polytypism, in existing or extinct organisms, show that the concept of fossil species, observed in a well-defined period of its lifetime, is no different from that of biological species. The study of the evolution of fossil organisms allow us to understand the modelities of evolution and the mechanisms of speciation here synthesized and fully documented, namely the anagenesis or sequential evolution and the cladogenesis or divergent evoltuion; these mechanisms are the basis of the synthetic or gradualist theory of evolution developed by Dobzhansky, Mayr, Huxley, Rensch and impson. This summary ends with a reference to the theory of punctuated (or intermittent) equilibria proposed by Gould and Eldredge, who presented a more objective interpretation of morphological gaps, considered as elements of evolution itself. The interdisciplinary collaboration between zoologists, geneticists and paleontologists, is compulsory in this domain. Paleozoology has a key role since it conveys the dynamism and depth to the dimension of space-time duality.
Appears in Collections:FCT: DCT - Ciências da Terra

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