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|Título:||Isolation and encapsulation of a natural colourant using green technologies|
|Autor:||Nunes, Ana Nunes|
Leitão, Ana Lúcia Monteiro Durão
|Data de Defesa:||Set-2014|
|Resumo:||The use of natural pigments instead of synthetic colourants is receiving growing interest in the food industry. In this field, cactus pears (Opuntia spp.) have been identified to be a promising betalainic crops covering a wide coloured spectrum. The aim of this work was to develop adequate clean and mild methodologies for the isolation and encapsulation of betacyanins, from cactus pear fruits (Opuntia spp.). Firstly, two different emerging technologies, namely PLE (Pressurized Liquid Extraction) and HPCDAE (High Pressure Carbon Dioxide-Assisted Extraction), were exploited to isolation of betacyanins form cactus pear fruits. Different process conditions were tested for the maximum recovery of betacyanins. Results showed that highest extraction yields were achieved for HPCDAE and mass ratio of pressurized carbon dioxide vs. acidified water was the parameter that most affected the betacyanins extraction. At optimum conditions of HPCDAE, Opuntia spp. extract presented a total betacyanin content of 211 ± 10 mg/100 g whereas extracts obtained using conventional extraction, PLE in static and in dynamic mode presented a total betacyanin content of 85 ± 3, 191 ± 2 and 153 ± 5 mg/100 g, respectively. HPCDAE has proven to be a successful technology to extract betacyanins from Opuntia spp. fruits. Afterward, Supercritical Fluid Technology was exploited to develop lipidic particles of betalain-rich extract. A betacyanin-rich conventional extract was encapsulated by PGSS® (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions) technique. Different process conditions were tested in order to model the encapsulation of betacyanins. The pressure had a negative effect on betacyanin encapsulation. Lower pressures leads to an increase in the betacyanin encapsulation. This effect was more pronounced at higher temperatures and lower equilibrium time. At these conditions, Opuntia spp. particles presented 64.4 ± 4.5 mg/100 g and high antioxidant capacity. When compared with the Opuntia spp. dried extract, lipidic particles contributed to a better homogenization of the pink colour after incorporation in ice cream.|
|Aparece nas colecções:||FCT: DCTB - Dissertações de Mestrado|
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