Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/15271
Título: Experimental and modeling studies on reverse electrodialysis for sustainable power generation
Autor: Pawlowski, Sylwin
Orientador: Velizarov, Svetlozar
Crespo, João
Palavras-chave: Reverse electrodialysis
Salinity gradient energy
Mass transfer
Pressure drop
Net power density
Data de Defesa: Mai-2015
Resumo: A potentially renewable and sustainable source of energy is the chemical energy associated with solvation of salts. Mixing of two aqueous streams with different saline concentrations is spontaneous and releases energy. The global theoretically obtainable power from salinity gradient energy due to World’s rivers discharge into the oceans has been estimated to be within the range of 1.4-2.6 TW. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based, technologies for harvesting the salinity gradient energy. A common RED stack is composed by alternately-arranged cation- and anion-exchange membranes, stacked between two electrodes. The compartments between the membranes are alternately fed with concentrated (e.g., sea water) and dilute (e.g., river water) saline solutions. Migration of the respective counter-ions through the membranes leads to ionic current between the electrodes, where an appropriate redox pair converts the chemical salinity gradient energy into electrical energy. Given the importance of the need for new sources of energy for power generation, the present study aims at better understanding and solving current challenges, associated with the RED stack design, fluid dynamics, ionic mass transfer and long-term RED stack performance with natural saline solutions as feedwaters. Chronopotentiometry was used to determinate diffusion boundary layer (DBL) thickness from diffusion relaxation data and the flow entrance effects on mass transfer were found to avail a power generation increase in RED stacks. Increasing the linear flow velocity also leads to a decrease of DBL thickness but on the cost of a higher pressure drop. Pressure drop inside RED stacks was successfully simulated by the developed mathematical model, in which contribution of several pressure drops, that until now have not been considered, was included. The effect of each pressure drop on the RED stack performance was identified and rationalized and guidelines for planning and/or optimization of RED stacks were derived. The design of new profiled membranes, with a chevron corrugation structure, was proposed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. The performance of the suggested corrugation geometry was compared with the already existing ones, as well as with the use of conductive and non-conductive spacers. According to the estimations, use of chevron structures grants the highest net power density values, at the best compromise between the mass transfer coefficient and the pressure drop values. Finally, long-term experiments with natural waters were performed, during which fouling was experienced. For the first time, 2D fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor RED stack performance, with a dedicated focus on following fouling on ion-exchange membrane surfaces. To extract relevant information from fluorescence spectra, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was performed. Moreover, the information obtained was then used to predict net power density, stack electric resistance and pressure drop by multivariate statistical models based on projection to latent structures (PLS) modeling. The use in such models of 2D fluorescence data, containing hidden, but extractable by PARAFAC, information about fouling on membrane surfaces, considerably improved the models fitting to the experimental data.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/15271
Designação: Dissertação
Aparece nas colecções:FCT: DQ - Teses de Doutoramento

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