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|Title:||Prognostic modelling of breast cancer patients: a benchmark of predictive models with external validation|
|Authors:||Fernandes, Ana Sofia Fachada|
|Publisher:||Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia|
|Abstract:||There are several clinical prognostic models in the medical field. Prior to clinical use, the outcome models of longitudinal cohort data need to undergo a multi-centre evaluation of their predictive accuracy. This thesis evaluates the possible gain in predictive accuracy in multicentre evaluation of a flexible model with Bayesian regularisation, the (PLANN-ARD), using a reference data set for breast cancer, which comprises 4016 records from patients diagnosed during 1989-93 and reported by the BCCA, Canada, with follow-up of 10 years. The method is compared with the widely used Cox regression model. Both methods were fitted to routinely acquired data from 743 patients diagnosed during 1990-94 at the Christie Hospital, UK, with follow-up of 5 years following surgery. Methodological advances developed to support the external validation of this neural network with clinical data include: imputation of missing data in both the training and validation data sets; and a prognostic index for stratification of patients into risk groups that can be extended to non-linear models. Predictive accuracy was measured empirically with a standard discrimination index, Ctd, and with a calibration measure, using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test statistic. Both Cox regression and the PLANN-ARD model are found to have similar discrimination but the neural network showed marginally better predictive accuracy over the 5-year followup period. In addition, the regularised neural network has the substantial advantage of being suited for making predictions of hazard rates and survival for individual patients. Four different approaches to stratify patients into risk groups are also proposed, each with a different foundation. While it was found that the four methodologies broadly agree, there are important differences between them. Rules sets were extracted and compared for the two stratification methods, the log-rank bootstrap and by direct application of regression trees, and with two rule extraction methodologies, OSRE and CART, respectively. In addition, widely used clinical breast cancer prognostic indexes such as the NPI, TNM and St. Gallen consensus rules, were compared with the proposed prognostic models expressed as regression trees, concluding that the suggested approaches may enhance current practice. Finally, a Web clinical decision support system is proposed for clinical oncologists and for breast cancer patients making prognostic assessments, which is tailored to the particular characteristics of the individual patient. This system comprises three different prognostic modelling methodologies: the NPI, Cox regression modelling and PLANN-ARD. For a given patient, all three models yield a generally consistent but not identical set of prognostic indices that can be analysed together in order to obtain a consensus and so achieve a more robust prognostic assessment of the expected patient outcome.|
|Description:||Dissertação apresentada para obtenção do Grau de Doutor em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores – Sistemas Digitais e Percepcionais pela Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia|
|Appears in Collections:||FCT: DEE - Teses de Doutoramento|
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