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|Title:||Influence of constraining and confinement in the molecular mobility of low molecular weight materials|
|Authors:||Brás, Ana Rita Elias|
|Publisher:||FCT - UNL|
|Abstract:||Despite the importance that the glassy state has nowadays, the transition from liquid to the glass, glass transition, still remains a matter of debate which constitutes one of the great condensed matter physics challenges. Since this fact is closely related to the cooperativity dynamics, the study of this phenomenon in glass-forming liquids under confinement in the nanometer scale, has recently emerged as a strategy to clarify factors such as the existence of an inherent length scale of the cooperative dynamics that determines the glass transition temperature. In this context, this thesis represents an additional contribution to the study of molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids under confinement in nanoporous inorganic materials. As target compounds the liquid crystal E7 and the drug Ibuprofen were selected. Since the first exhibit various transitions makes it more sensitive to perturbations and thus appears as the ideal candidate to evaluate confinement effects. The study of ibuprofen is of particular interest because confinement emerges as a method of stabilizing the amorphous phase that is mostly important in pharmaceutical applications. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy(DRS) is the main technique used to obtain detailed information about the molecular mobility in a wide range of frequencies (10-2-109Hz) (Chapter I and II). The first part of the thesis is devoted to the characterization of the two target compounds in the bulk state. The combination of DRS with the specific heat spectroscopy allowed to determine which of the E7 observed relaxation processes (a process in the isotropic phase and two processes in the nematic phase: δ and tumbling) is responsible for the glass transition temperature Tg (tumbling process). Detailed studies of ibuprofen molecular mobility in the liquid, supercooled liquid and glassy states are also presented in this chapter, where four relaxation processes are detected: two secondary processes (γ and β), the cooperative process related to Tg (α ) and the Debye process (D), probably related to the hydrogen bonding dynamics. This study was preceded by an optimization of the conditions to obtain amorphous Ibuprofen which is a crystal in its natural state (Chapter III). In the next chapter (Chapter IV), the molecular dynamics of E7 confined to untreated and phospholipid lecithin treated rigid inorganic membranes with 20 nm pore diameter was evaluated. It was found that both the liquid crystal alignment, as well as the dynamics is influenced by confinement and treatment of the surface pores. Additionally, E7 was further studied confined to the mesoporous materials MCM-41 and SBA-15 type, 100% silica composition and pore size between the 2.8 and 6.8 nm. A multiplicity of relaxation processes was revealed by DRS, including the modes already observed in the bulk E7. In addition, two|
|Description:||Dissertation presented to obtain a Ph.D. Degree in Chemical Physics|
|Appears in Collections:||FCT: DQ - Teses de Doutoramento|
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