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Title: In-situ X-ray diffraction studies during growth of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films and their complementary ex-situ characterization
Authors: Martins, Rui Miguel dos Santos
Orientador: Fernandes, Francisco Manuel Braz
Schell, Norbert
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: FCT - UNL
Abstract: Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Ni-Ti films have attracted much interest as functional and smart materials due to their unique properties. However, there are still important issues unresolved like formation of film texture and its control as well as substrate effects. Thus, the main challenge is not only the control of the microstructure, including stoichiometry and precipitates, but also the identification and control of the preferential orientation since it is a crucial factor in determining the shape memory behaviour. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study the optimisation of the deposition conditions of films of Ni-Ti in order to obtain the material fully crystallized at the end of the deposition, and to establish a clear relationship between the substrates and texture development. In order to achieve this objective, a two-magnetron sputter deposition chamber has been used allowing to heat and to apply a bias voltage to the substrate. It can be mounted into the six-circle diffractometer of the Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France, enabling an in-situ characterization by X-ray diffraction(XRD) of the films during their growth and annealing. The in-situ studies enable us to identify the different steps of the structural evolution during deposition with a set of parameters as well as to evaluate the effect of changing parameters on the structural characteristics of the deposited film. Besides the in-situ studies, other complementary ex-situ characterization techniques such as XRD at a laboratory source, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy(RBS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrical resistivity (ER) measurements during temperature cycling have been used for a fine structural characterization. In this study, mainly naturally and thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates, TiN buffer layers with different thicknesses (i.e. the TiN topmost layer crystallographic orientation is thickness dependent) and MgO(100) single crystals were used as substrates. The chosen experimental procedure led to a controlled composition and preferential orientation of the films. The type of substrate plays an important role for the texture of the sputtered Ni-Ti films and according to the ER results, the distinct crystallographic orientations of the Ni-Ti films influence their phase transformation characteristics.
Appears in Collections:FCT: DCM - Teses de Doutoramento

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